800,000 years of temperature and CO2 corelation (credit: NASA)
Climate is where you live, it is cold in the mountains and hot in the deserts, while weather happens from individual events during the year. Extreme weather is a reflection of weather events being amplified such as frequency or intensity of tornadoes, hurricanes, fires, floods, and torrential rainfall. They are the consequence of basic atmospheric physics and chemistry.
NASA has produced an info-graphic of measurements, with data gathered from Greenland and Antarctica ice cores, that correlates CO2 concentrations with temperatures over an 800,000 year timeline. The space agency has been gathering this basic information on atmospheric changes from its fleet of Earth orbiting satellites for decades.
Unfortunately, even with all the science and climate measurements, an industry of "climate denialism" has negatively impacted actions to address climate change. Maybe amplification of recent extreme weather in Texas and California, to the Caribbean, Australia, and Siberia may help to convince more people that the climate is changing rapidly.
We are still in a bigger intellectual deficit than just lack of water in a desert.